# Fizika II. - Angol elméleti kérdések

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Elméleti kérdések az angol nyelvű fizikakurzusokhoz (mérnök informatikus BSc Fizika II).

- What is the definition of electric field?
- Find the expression for the electric field of a homogeneously charged sphere.
- Write the expression for the flux of the electric field.
- How is the energy of a charge arrangement defined?
- Prove that the tangential component of the electric field does not change at the boundary between two dielectrics.
- Prove that the normal component of the displacement vector does not change at the boundary between two dielectrics.
- Prove that the tangential component of the magnetic field strength does not change at the boundary between two dielectrics.
- Prove that the normal component of the magnetic field does not change at the boundary between two dielectrics.
- What is Rayleigh's criterion of resolution?
- What is Brewster's law and what is the physical explanation behind it?
- What is the physical meaning of the square of the absolute value of the wave function?
- What does Gauss's law in electrostatics say?
- Derive the formula for the capacitance of a spherical capacitor.
- Derive the formula for the capacitance of a cylindrical capacitor.
- Derive the formula for the inductance of a solenoid.
- Write the mathematical expressions for travelling waves and standing waves.
- Write Maxwell's four equations and explain the meaning of the different terms.
- What are necessary conditions for interference?
- What is the definition of electric potential?
- How can one calculate the electric potential energy of a system that consists of
*n*point charges? - What are Kirchhoff's two rules of electric circuits? What are the physical principles behind them?
- Write down the expression for the Biot-Savart law, explaining the meaning of each term.
- What is the Hall effect? What can it be used for?
- Write the generalized Ampere's law, explaining the meaning for each term.
- What is the relationship between
**H**and**B**in a diamagnetic, a paramagnetic and a ferromagnetic material? - What interpretational difficulties arise in relation with the magnetic permeability of ferromagnetic materials?
- Write Faraday's law of induction. What is the meaning of the different terms and what is the significance of the minus sign?
- What is Lenz's law?
- What is the definition of capacitance and the definition of inductance?
- What is the definition of mutual inductance?
- What does the self-inductance of a conductor depend on?
- What are the eddy currents? Give an example when they are undesirable. How can we reduce them?
- Derive the expression for the acoustic Doppler effect.
- What is a shock wave? When does it evolve?
- Write the linear wave equation in 1D.
- What is the definition of the index of refraction?
- Write the mathematical form of a travelling wave and of a standing wave.
- What is Huygens' principle?
- Using Fermat's principle, derive Snell's law of refraction.
- How does a microscope work? How does a telescope work?
- How can we measure the wavelength of light using a Michelson interferometer?
- What are the necessary conditions for interference between two waves?
- There are
*n*identical radiating dipoles along a straight line. Analyze the dependence of net intensity on the phase difference between adjacent dipoles. - What is Laue's condition for x-ray diffraction on crystals? Why are not all wavelengths suitable for diffraction on a 3D crystal?
- How does a Fresnel lens ("zone plate") work?
- How can we produce linearly polarized light out of unpolarized light? (List at least 2 or 3 different methods.)
- What is Wien's displacement law of blackbody radiation?
- What assumptions did Planck make in order to explain the spectrum of blackbody radiation?
- What is the photoelectric effect and how did Einstein explain it?
- What is the Compton effect and how can it be explained?
- What are the basic ideas of Bohr's theory for the hydrogen atom?
- What does Bohr's correspondence principle say?
- What was de Broglie's hypothesis and how did Davisson and Germer prove it experimentally?
- What is Heisenberg's uncertainty principle?
- Derive the allowed energy levels of a particle in a 1D box.
- Write the time-independent Schrödinger equation for a particle in 1D. What are the requirements that the wave function has to satisfy (in order to be "well-behaved")?
- What are the allowed energy levels of a simple harmonic oscillator? Find the quantum number
*n*for a particle of mass 1 g that is attached to a spring of spring constant 0.5 N/m and oscillates with an amplitude of 2 cm. Why is the quantized nature of the energy not observable here? - Draw schematic diagrams (with brief explanation) of spontaneous emission, stimulated emission and absorption. Which of the three mechanisms is relevant for the operation of a laser?
- Why are at least 3 energy levels necessary in optical laser pumping?
- What are the special properties of laser light? List at least 3 or 4 laser application areas.
- What is the basic idea of holography? In what respect is it different from conventional photography? What is the advantage of a holographic memory over conventional storage elements?
- Prove that a solenoid with inductance
**L**and current**I**has a magnetic energy [math]\frac 1 2 LI^2[/math] - Prove that in the homogeneous electric field of an ideal parallel-plate capacitor the volume energy density of the electrostatic field is [math]\frac 1 2 ED[/math]
- What is the displacement current and what effect does it have?
- Why is the sky blue? Why are sunsets red?
- What do we experience during photoelectric effect if we increase
- the wavelength of the incident light?
- the intensity of the incident light?